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The Iconic Roots of Language
85,00 € *
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Walter A. Koch was Professor of English Philology and General Semiotics at Ruhr-University Bochum from 1968 through 1999. Since 1999 he has been Professor Emeritus. In 1984, he founded the Bochum Semiotic Colloquy ("BSC") which became engaged in interdisciplinary symposia and research. He has been editor of BBS (Bochumer Beiträge zur Semiotik) and BPX (Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics). His main interests are Semiotics, Cultural Semiotics, Theory of Literature and Poetry, Systems Theory, a General Theory of Evolution, Systems Philosophy. Among his publications: Varia Semiotica (Hildesheim: Olms, 1971), Poetry and Science (Tübingen: Narr, 1983), Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1986), The Biology of Literature (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1993), The Roots of Literature (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1993), ed. with Gabriel Altmann: Systems: New Paradigms for the Human Sciences (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997).The present book is a collection of three essays which – though conceived for different contexts " combine in the effort of suggesting an overall and crucial importance of ICONICITY to the explanation of the evolution of LANGUAGE in especial, and also of INFORMATION in general. This radical thesis is in conflict with mainstream theories of linguistics. ICONICITY as understood in the present book is considered to be a foundation-stone for any attempt at a holistic representation of communication systems and also of the universe at large. This means that our seemingly conventional language ultimately relies on various types of iconic imagination. Among the billion different words that have been ‘invented’ on this planet, there are only very few, if any, that have been completely arbitrary from the very start.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 28.02.2020
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Black American English
19,90 CHF *
zzgl. 3,50 CHF Versand

Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (English Seminar), course: Seminar: Introduction to african-american Literature, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction In this essay we are going to deal with Black American English and its specific features and differences to Standard English. The analysis includes an introduction to the grammar of BAE, its specific vocabulary, the African elements in BAE and the ethnographic speech behaviour connected with the use of BAE. At the beginning a short survey will be given on who actually speaks BAE. 1. Who speaks Black American English? In general, we can say that all those speak BAE (= Black American English) who consider themselves to be Black. Those are 80% of the Black American population. But also some Puerto Ricans and members of the southern plantation owning class do use this language. In former times BAE was also used by some Indian tribes and Seminoles. The dialect patterns depend on social factors rather than racial or geographic. Many people are capable of several dialects, and also some Whites do speak those dialects. The history of the Afro-American languages correlates with a caste system. The use of BAE indicates a low level of education as well as a low social standard. It indicates that the speaker belongs to a social group that has remained unassimilated to the white culture. Rich black families tend to speak Standard English. In the use of Standard English among Blacks agegrading plays a great role. First the children adopt the language they learn in their peer groups, later on they learn Standard English in school. The age-grading towards Standard English is closely connected with status grading, i.e. children of families with a higher social level tend to the use of Standard English. The higher a Black climbs on the social ladder the more he tends to Standard English. In general, women find it easier to affiliate with the middle-class and to adopt the white culture standards. But the use of BAE is also an indicator of racial awareness and identity. And even highly educated Blacks want to express their roots linguistically to show their identification. They do so by the use of ethnic slang which they use, even if they detest the grammar and phonology of BAE 1. 1 Dillard, J.L.; Black English, New York, 1972. (p.229 - 240)

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 28.02.2020
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New Meets Old: Hawthorne's Representation of Am...
5,40 CHF *
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Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (Philology, English Seminar), course: Reading Hawthorne's Romance, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: [...] In my analysis I want to show that Hawthorne represents America and Europe as opposites and turns them into opponents in the fight of America versus Europe. In the course of this paper I would like to find out about the reasons for his contrary representations of the two continents. Furthermore I want to uncover the purpose of Hawthorne's different representations. The thesis, which I want to prove here, is that Hawthorne deals with the American feeling of cultural inferiority towards Europe and its eventual overcoming by means of the Myth of America. The characters in The Marble Faun are created according to the American and European stereotypes, which the myth makes use of, and serve as means for expressing the conflict. In this context, I want to show that The Marble Faun is a pro-America romance. Pro-America because Hawthorne is conform to the Myth of America and praises innocence, a virtue which America claims exclusively for itself. Based on the claim of innocence America claims leadership, which is supported by Hawthorne. First of all I will deal with the roots of the tensions between Europe and America and the traditional stereotypical treatment of them. Then I will explain the Myth of America and the reason for its invention. After these two introductory parts I want to concern myself with the question of how Hawthorne transferred the topic of America versus Europe into a story. Proceeding from the assumption that the Myth of America served as a basis, I want to deal more closely with the stereotypes and point out the parallels to the main characters. Coming from the stereotypes I will take a closer look at the female figures, Miriam and Hilda. I will show that they represent the stereotypical Europe and America most perfectly. The American character Hilda is for me of great interest because she constitutes the moral center of the romance. Moreover Hawthorne uses mostly her figure to carry out the pro-America tendencies of the book. By looking at Hawthorne's treatment of Hilda I will demonstrate the strong orientation at the Myth of America and his praise of the American virtue. In the last chapter I will come back to the American feelings of cultural inferiority towards Europe. My intention is to show how Hawthorne deals with the problem and how he uses the Myth of America to turn the American characters' cultural inferiority into overall superiority.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot
Black American English
10,90 CHF *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (English Seminar), course: Seminar: Introduction to african-american Literature, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction In this essay we are going to deal with Black American English and its specific features and differences to Standard English. The analysis includes an introduction to the grammar of BAE, its specific vocabulary, the African elements in BAE and the ethnographic speech behaviour connected with the use of BAE. At the beginning a short survey will be given on who actually speaks BAE. 1. Who speaks Black American English? In general, we can say that all those speak BAE (= Black American English) who consider themselves to be Black. Those are 80% of the Black American population. But also some Puerto Ricans and members of the southern plantation owning class do use this language. In former times BAE was also used by some Indian tribes and Seminoles. The dialect patterns depend on social factors rather than racial or geographic. Many people are capable of several dialects, and also some Whites do speak those dialects. The history of the Afro-American languages correlates with a caste system. The use of BAE indicates a low level of education as well as a low social standard. It indicates that the speaker belongs to a social group that has remained unassimilated to the white culture. Rich black families tend to speak Standard English. In the use of Standard English among Blacks agegrading plays a great role. First the children adopt the language they learn in their peer groups, later on they learn Standard English in school. The age-grading towards Standard English is closely connected with status grading, i.e. children of families with a higher social level tend to the use of Standard English. The higher a Black climbs on the social ladder the more he tends to Standard English. In general, women find it easier to affiliate with the middle-class and to adopt the white culture standards. But the use of BAE is also an indicator of racial awareness and identity. And even highly educated Blacks want to express their roots linguistically to show their identification. They do so by the use of ethnic slang which they use, even if they detest the grammar and phonology of BAE 1. 1 Dillard, J.L.; Black English, New York, 1972. (p.229 - 240)

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot
Black American English
12,40 € *
zzgl. 3,00 € Versand

Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (English Seminar), course: Seminar: Introduction to african-american Literature, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction In this essay we are going to deal with Black American English and its specific features and differences to Standard English. The analysis includes an introduction to the grammar of BAE, its specific vocabulary, the African elements in BAE and the ethnographic speech behaviour connected with the use of BAE. At the beginning a short survey will be given on who actually speaks BAE. 1. Who speaks Black American English? In general, we can say that all those speak BAE (= Black American English) who consider themselves to be Black. Those are 80% of the Black American population. But also some Puerto Ricans and members of the southern plantation owning class do use this language. In former times BAE was also used by some Indian tribes and Seminoles. The dialect patterns depend on social factors rather than racial or geographic. Many people are capable of several dialects, and also some Whites do speak those dialects. The history of the Afro-American languages correlates with a caste system. The use of BAE indicates a low level of education as well as a low social standard. It indicates that the speaker belongs to a social group that has remained unassimilated to the white culture. Rich black families tend to speak Standard English. In the use of Standard English among Blacks agegrading plays a great role. First the children adopt the language they learn in their peer groups, later on they learn Standard English in school. The age-grading towards Standard English is closely connected with status grading, i.e. children of families with a higher social level tend to the use of Standard English. The higher a Black climbs on the social ladder the more he tends to Standard English. In general, women find it easier to affiliate with the middle-class and to adopt the white culture standards. But the use of BAE is also an indicator of racial awareness and identity. And even highly educated Blacks want to express their roots linguistically to show their identification. They do so by the use of ethnic slang which they use, even if they detest the grammar and phonology of BAE 1. 1 Dillard, J.L.; Black English, New York, 1972. (p.229 - 240)

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot
The Iconic Roots of Language
87,40 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Walter A. Koch was Professor of English Philology and General Semiotics at Ruhr-University Bochum from 1968 through 1999. Since 1999 he has been Professor Emeritus. In 1984, he founded the Bochum Semiotic Colloquy ('BSC') which became engaged in interdisciplinary symposia and research. He has been editor of BBS (Bochumer Beiträge zur Semiotik) and BPX (Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics). His main interests are Semiotics, Cultural Semiotics, Theory of Literature and Poetry, Systems Theory, a General Theory of Evolution, Systems Philosophy. Among his publications: Varia Semiotica (Hildesheim: Olms, 1971), Poetry and Science (Tübingen: Narr, 1983), Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1986), The Biology of Literature (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1993), The Roots of Literature (Bochum: Universitätsverlag, 1993), ed. with Gabriel Altmann: Systems: New Paradigms for the Human Sciences (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997). The present book is a collection of three essays which – though conceived for different con texts ¿ combine in the effort of suggesting an overall and crucial import ance of ICONICITY to the explanation of the evolution of LAN GUAGE in especial, and also of INFORMATION in general. This radical thesis is in conflict with main stream theories of linguistics. ICONICITY as understood in the present book is con sidered to be a foundation-stone for any attempt at a holistic repres entation of communication systems and also of the universe at large. This means that our seeming ly conventional language ultimately relies on various types of iconic imagination. Among the billion different words that have been ‘in vented’ on this planet, there are only very few, if any, that have been completely arbitrary from the very start.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot
Black American English
8,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (English Seminar), course: Seminar: Introduction to african-american Literature, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction In this essay we are going to deal with Black American English and its specific features and differences to Standard English. The analysis includes an introduction to the grammar of BAE, its specific vocabulary, the African elements in BAE and the ethnographic speech behaviour connected with the use of BAE. At the beginning a short survey will be given on who actually speaks BAE. 1. Who speaks Black American English? In general, we can say that all those speak BAE (= Black American English) who consider themselves to be Black. Those are 80% of the Black American population. But also some Puerto Ricans and members of the southern plantation owning class do use this language. In former times BAE was also used by some Indian tribes and Seminoles. The dialect patterns depend on social factors rather than racial or geographic. Many people are capable of several dialects, and also some Whites do speak those dialects. The history of the Afro-American languages correlates with a caste system. The use of BAE indicates a low level of education as well as a low social standard. It indicates that the speaker belongs to a social group that has remained unassimilated to the white culture. Rich black families tend to speak Standard English. In the use of Standard English among Blacks agegrading plays a great role. First the children adopt the language they learn in their peer groups, later on they learn Standard English in school. The age-grading towards Standard English is closely connected with status grading, i.e. children of families with a higher social level tend to the use of Standard English. The higher a Black climbs on the social ladder the more he tends to Standard English. In general, women find it easier to affiliate with the middle-class and to adopt the white culture standards. But the use of BAE is also an indicator of racial awareness and identity. And even highly educated Blacks want to express their roots linguistically to show their identification. They do so by the use of ethnic slang which they use, even if they detest the grammar and phonology of BAE 1. 1 Dillard, J.L.; Black English, New York, 1972. (p.229 - 240)

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot
New Meets Old: Hawthorne's Representation of Am...
3,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3 (A), Ruhr-University of Bochum (Philology, English Seminar), course: Reading Hawthorne's Romance, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: [...] In my analysis I want to show that Hawthorne represents America and Europe as opposites and turns them into opponents in the fight of America versus Europe. In the course of this paper I would like to find out about the reasons for his contrary representations of the two continents. Furthermore I want to uncover the purpose of Hawthorne's different representations. The thesis, which I want to prove here, is that Hawthorne deals with the American feeling of cultural inferiority towards Europe and its eventual overcoming by means of the Myth of America. The characters in The Marble Faun are created according to the American and European stereotypes, which the myth makes use of, and serve as means for expressing the conflict. In this context, I want to show that The Marble Faun is a pro-America romance. Pro-America because Hawthorne is conform to the Myth of America and praises innocence, a virtue which America claims exclusively for itself. Based on the claim of innocence America claims leadership, which is supported by Hawthorne. First of all I will deal with the roots of the tensions between Europe and America and the traditional stereotypical treatment of them. Then I will explain the Myth of America and the reason for its invention. After these two introductory parts I want to concern myself with the question of how Hawthorne transferred the topic of America versus Europe into a story. Proceeding from the assumption that the Myth of America served as a basis, I want to deal more closely with the stereotypes and point out the parallels to the main characters. Coming from the stereotypes I will take a closer look at the female figures, Miriam and Hilda. I will show that they represent the stereotypical Europe and America most perfectly. The American character Hilda is for me of great interest because she constitutes the moral center of the romance. Moreover Hawthorne uses mostly her figure to carry out the pro-America tendencies of the book. By looking at Hawthorne's treatment of Hilda I will demonstrate the strong orientation at the Myth of America and his praise of the American virtue. In the last chapter I will come back to the American feelings of cultural inferiority towards Europe. My intention is to show how Hawthorne deals with the problem and how he uses the Myth of America to turn the American characters' cultural inferiority into overall superiority.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 28.02.2020
Zum Angebot